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New Website: Frameworks for crime prevention, security and community safety

This website presents, in one place, the complete set of Crime Frameworks, including 5Is and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity, that he has developed (and continues to develop) during his career in research, evaluation, action projects and design.

The Crime Frameworks have been developed from a career of experience in researching, evaluating, co-designing and implementing crime prevention, security and community safety action. The frameworks centre on analysis of causes and risk factors, and generation and application of interventions derived from tested theoretical principles. They support and complement an evidence-based approach, combined with a strong orientation towards theory and sharp conceptual analysis. They offer an advanced, integrated approach intended to handle the messy complexity of real-world crime problems and solutions more effectively than existing counterparts which can be oversimple and fragmentary. But they can be applied at different levels of sophistication according to the needs and abilities of users.

The underlying philosophy is that a greater investment in knowledge tools enables better, more adaptive/agile performance in crime prevention, security and community safety – both practice and research.

The frameworks include:

  • A clear and consistent suite of terms, definitions and concepts with which to articulate, record and share diverse approaches to crime and security
  • The 5Is Framework which is both an advanced process model (Intelligence, Intervention, Implementation, Involvement, Impact & process evaluation) and a knowledge capture framework. It is a more sophisticated counterpart of the SARA model for Problem-Oriented Policing, and also for describing action for knowledge-management purposes.
  • The Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity, a ‘one-stop-shop’ integrated framework of the immediate causes of criminal events, and counterpart intervention principles – similar to the Problem Analysis Triangle but much more comprehensive and detailed
  • The Ds Framework, for describing how situational interventions have their effect on the offender
  • The Misdeeds and Security Framework, for thinking systematically about the range of crime risks and security possibilities potentially emerging from new products and other fruits of design

The Crime Frameworks website focuses variously on here-and-now crime, security and terrorism problems; the secure design of products, places (CPTED), systems and services; cybercrime; future crimes; crime-security arms races and other evolutionary processes; and techniques and applications of evaluation.


Professor Paul Ekblom PhD FRSA is passionate about the quality of thinking, communication and knowledge in crime prevention, security and community safety. This applies equally, but in different ways, to practice, programmes and policy; and to research, theorising and evaluation within and across the disciplines of Crime Science, design and engineering in material and cyberspace.

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