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New AIC Publication: Deaths in custody in Australia 2017-18

The Deaths in custody in Australia 2017–18 Statistical Report describes the number, rate and nature of deaths in prison and police custody in Australia between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2018. The data are drawn from the Australian Institute of Criminology’s National Deaths in Custody Program, established in 1992 following recommendation from the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.
Deaths in prison custody

  • There were 72 deaths in prison custody in 2017­–18. Sixteen of these (22%) were of Indigenous persons.
  • The death rate of Indigenous prisoners was 0.14 per 100 prisoners compared with 0.18 per 100 prisoners for non-Indigenous prisoners.
  • Sixty-three percent (n=45) of prison custody deaths were attributable to natural causes. Seventeen percent (n=12)were attributable to hanging.
  • A third of prison custody deaths (n=24, 33%) were of unsentenced prisoners.

Deaths in police custody

  • There were 21 deaths in police custody in 2017­­­–18, of which three were Indigenous persons.
  • Eight shooting deaths in police custody occurred in 2017–18. Seven were of non-Indigenous persons and the Indigenous status was not known for the eighth death.

The paper is available for free download on the AIC website:

New AIC Publication:Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions








Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions


  • Today the AIC has released a Trends and Issues paper on live streaming of child sexual abuse, based on an analysis of financial transactions held by AUSTRAC and criminal record information held by the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission.
  • The paper shows that 256 Australians made 2,714 financial transactions to individuals in the Philippines identified to the Australian Federal Police as facilitating live streaming of child sexual abuse.
  • Almost two thirds of those purchasing live streaming of child sexual abuse were aged in their 50s and 60s and they were, on average, aged 52 years when they made their first purchase.
  • Over half the sample had no previous criminal history, while 10% had a sexual offence in their criminal history.
  • Analysis of transaction histories shows that the frequency with which individuals purchase live streaming of child sexual abuse and the amount they are willing to pay escalates over time.

The paper is available for free download on the AIC website:










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New AIC Publication: Methamphetamine dependence and domestic violence among police detainees

Methamphetamine dependence and domestic violence among police detainees

The Australian Institute of Criminology has released a new paper exploring the relationship between methamphetamine dependence and domestic violence.

  • The study used data from interviews with 351 male police detainees who had a current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months. These interviews were conducted as part of the AIC’s Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program.
  • Thirty-seven percent of detainees reported perpetrating at least one act of domestic violence in the previous 12 months—twenty-five percent had threatened violence and/or property damage, 23 percent had been psychologically or emotionally abusive, 17 percent had been physically violent and 15 percent reported controlling behaviour.
  • Nearly two-thirds of methamphetamine dependent detainees reported that they had been abusive towards a current or former partner in the previous 12 months.
  • Detainees who were dependent on methamphetamine were significantly more likely to have been violent towards an intimate partner than detainees who used methamphetamine but were not dependent, controlling for other factors.
  • Similar patterns were observed for detainees who reported cannabis dependence.
  • Attitudes minimising the impact of violence were also associated with an increased likelihood of domestic violence.
  • The results are particularly significant given the rise in methamphetamine use and dependence among police detainees since this research was conducted. In 2018, more than half of all detainees reported using methamphetamine in the previous 12 months, and around half of these detainees felt they needed or were dependent on methamphetamine.

This study builds on previous AIC research exploring the link between methamphetamine and domestic violence. The results illustrate the importance of integrated responses that address the co-occurrence of substance use disorders and domestic violence among criminal justice populations.

The paper is available for free download on the AIC website:

“Dialogue instead of hate” An Austrian programme for offences concerning hate speech

Today, the polarisation of societal debates, differences and tensions within society as well as prejudices are increasingly taking place on social media, in places under the protection of presumed anonymity. Legislation has responded with an adaptation of the provision of Section 283 of the Criminal Code (StGB; incitement of hatred) which has resulted in an increase in convictions concerning hate speech.

NEUSTART Bayern gGmbH in cooperation with Verein NEUSTART and in collaboration with the judiciary (state prosecutors and judges) has developed a rational and socially constructive response to the current challenge in terms of hate crime as part of the Austrian probation service: The “Dialogue instead of hate” programme aims to sensitise people to discrimination, raise awareness for injustice and lead to reflection and consequently a change in behaviour.

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Laudatio by President von der Leyen on the awarding of the 2020 Ewald von Kleist Prize to the United Nations at the Munich Security Conference

"Check against delivery"

Ministerpräsident Söder

Ambassador Ischinger,

Deputy Secretary-General Lacroix,

Dear friends,

I am pleased to join you in honouring the United Nations for its achievements in peace and conflict resolution. Many of us in this room have had the opportunity to see the United Nations in action. Many of us remember the feeling when you first approach the UN headquarters in New York. When you look up at the UN building, rising high into the sky on the banks of the East River. When you see the mural in the Security Council's room, with a phoenix rising from the ashes of World War Two. When you see the majesty of the General Assembly hall you can't help thinking the UN is the most ambitious project that humanity has ever conceived. A project to end war on our planet. A project to end poverty and inequality. A project for global democracy. The UN is a symbol of hope. And this symbol of hope reaches not only the capitals of politics and economics, but also illuminates the lives of people in those places that have been forgotten. The hope reaches far into refugee camps, into cities destroyed by conflict, into the tiniest villages in the developing world, into their market stalls, their schools and hospitals. For many living in war and poverty, the two letters “UN” written on blue helmets around the world send the most powerful message of hope: The world has not forgotten you. We are here to help.


Ladies and gentlemen,

It is very fitting that the Munich Security Conference, the United Nations and the European Union should come together in this way tonight. The goal of all three undertakings remains the same: No conflict, never again. The United Nations and the European Union were born out of the Second World War, with the ambition of removing the very causes that had led to the war. Ewald von Kleist, the founder of the Munich Security Conference, shared the same ambition. He had resisted the Nazi regime. And after the war, he saw the need for more dialogue on security policy. That's why he set up the Munich Security Conference in 1963. The Ewald-von-Kleist Prize celebrates the peace-makers and the bridge-builders. And no organisation deserves it more than the UN.

So please allow me to thank Ambassador Ischinger and the Munich Security Conference for their decision to award this year's Prize to the United Nations. First and foremost, with this prize, you honour the organization and its staff. I want to recognize the senior leadership from the United Nations and its Agencies here today. And I want to highlight the commitment and bravery of United Nations staff everywhere, including those who work in humanitarian emergencies, in conflict, and in peace operations.

I am proud to say that I have met many of these incredible people. This prize belongs to you.

It also belongs to those who have died in the service of the United Nations. I remember, as a Defence Minister, standing on the tarmac at Köln airport, waiting for the coffins of two of our soldiers, who died as peacekeepers during a UN mission in Mali. And I remember the feelings of their comrades, when I met them days later in Gao. All of them serving under the UN flag were ready to give their life in order to protect the values the UN stands for.

This Prize tonight is also a political statement. By honouring the United Nations, the Munich Security Conference stands strong in defending effective multilateralism. And this is why the European Union is proud to be the strongest supporter of the UN and the UN system. Take the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The whole world has declared war on poverty and on its causes.

For us, Europeans, the Development Goals have become the compass of our global action. Whenever we invest abroad, we ask ourselves: are we creating growth that is sustainable? are we investing enough in education, in good jobs for young people, in entrepreneurship of women, in clean energy, in good governance. This is not always easy. The benefits might be less visible in the short term. But in the long run we know that this is what truly works. This is what creates development that can stand the test of time. I could also mention the Climate Action Summit hosted by the Secretary-General in September, which truly resonates with our European Green Deal. Or the amazing work that the UN Agencies are doing in so many different fields. The World Health Organization, whose Director-General is here today, is at the forefront of the fight to contain the Coronavirus outbreak. UNICEF has changed the life of millions of children in over 190 countries. The UN Agencies for migrants and refugees have provided shelter and hope from Syria to Myanmar, to Venezuela. And the world needs UN peacekeeping.

Its successes are sometimes obscured by the protracted nature of some conflicts. But UN peacekeepers have made history, for instance in Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire – where two UN missions have just been concluded successfully. These are just some of the achievements that the United Nations can be proud of and which we should celebrate. It is for all these reasons, that the European Union with its Member States will continue to be the strongest supporter of multilateralism, a close partner on the ground for UN Agencies, and the single largest financial contributor to the UN system. When I took office, I said I would lead a geopolitical Commission. In a world of growing geopolitical tensions, we need the United Nations more than ever before. Yet we all know that the multilateral order has come under increasing pressure. Already, we see rejection of the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. Human rights are violated and their universal value is questioned. There is a push-back on women's rights. In many places, humanitarian access is routinely denied – we only have to look at Yemen to see the tragic results.And non-State actors, such as Boko Haram, who disdain international law, envelop entire regions with blatant disregard for human dignity.

Despite our best efforts, accountability for such violations is weak, and the International Criminal Court remains under pressure. Too often, the United Nations Security Council is trapped in its dynamics – just like it was during the Cold War. The determination found by “we the peoples” in the Charter of the United Nations has lost its luster. And sometimes the United Nations itself, as an organisation, has not lived up to its ideals. Over the years, cases of exploitation and abuse have tarnished its image, therefore, the zero-tolerance policy is a most welcome step forward in this regard. And if this was not enough, the effects of climate change and the advent of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, could lead to further challenges to international relations. It is right that the Secretary-General of the United Nations has this year set out these two issues as his priority. They align completely with the European Union's priorities of the European Green Deal and making Europe fit for the digital age.


Ladies and Gentlemen

The sum of all the challenges to the international system translates to a real threat to the United Nations. Can it withstand the pressure? Can the center hold? This question interlocks with the thesis of “Westlessness” that Ambassador Ischinger has put to the conference. Will the role of the United Nations diminish in this less Western world that he describes?

It is up to us! We shouldn't forget that the United Nations can only work if its Member States make it work.

Fort a good reason the preamble of the charter of the UN signed in 1945 starts:


to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small.

And it ends with the words:


It is up to us! Everyone in this room is called upon!

When the UN fails, it is our collective failure. But when the UN succeeds, it is for the world's collective good. This what you, the United Nations stand for. This is why you are so precious. This is why you can always count on us, the European Union. We owe you. The world owes you so much. Tonight's prize is but a small sign of our dedication, to support the UN's work in our troubled world. And congratulations to the United Nations on this prize.


Research Report – Profile of Canadian Businesses who Report Cybercrime to Police: The 2017 Canadian Survey of Cyber Security and Cybercrime

Now available on Public Safety Canada’s website

Cybercrime – crimes where the Internet and information technology (IT) are used, such as hacking, virus dissemination, and organized crime – is a growing concern for governments, organizations, individuals and businesses worldwide. Research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada has concluded that cybercrime and cyber security incidents are underreported to law enforcement. the reasons why this is the case, however, are not well known, especially within a Canadian context. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine the phenomenon of underreporting of cyber security incidents to police services using data from the 2017 Canadian Survey of Cyber Security and Cybercrime that was administered to Canadian businesses. Results indicated that while just over 20% of businesses experienced cyber-related incidents, only about 10% are reporting these incidents to the police. Businesses did not report incidents because they were resolved internally or through an IT consultant, or were thought to be too minor to report to police. Risk management, formal training, and sharing best practices were found to be related to businesses’ likelihood of reporting incidents to police. Larger businesses were more likely to report cybercrime to police when they implemented less security measures, whereas scores on security measures were not related to police reporting for small businesses. Results suggest a need to increase awareness of the frequency of cybercrime, as well as the availability of formal training options on cyber-related issues. they also underscore the importance of having enhanced cyber security protocols in place.

Author's note
the views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of Public Safety Canada. Correspondence concerning this report should be addressed to:

Research Division
Public Safety Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P8

Panel: Advancing research on violence against women: Partnering for impact

This panel will share innovations from research / practitioner partnerships working to end violence against women in the global south

How do we tackle violence against women and girls? What services and programmes do we prioritise? What can we deliver both cost effectively and at scale through government platforms, infrastructural development programmes, civil society?

At this event, the SVRI, the World Bank Group and Wellspring Philanthropic Fund along with grant partners will transfer complex research questions into learning for a broad group of professionals and showcase innovative research through presentations and use of multi-media. Presenters will showcase innovative interventions being tested aimed at reducing violence against women and girls.


Thu, March 12, 2020

2:00 PM – 3:30 PM EDT



Wellspring Philanthropic Fund, 14th Floor, Conference Room

1441 Broadway

New York, NY 10018

United States


Panellists include: Diana J. Arango, Senior GBV Specialist, WBG; Elizabeth Dartnall, Executive Director, SVRI; Tesmerelna Atsbeha, Wellspring Philanthropic Fund; Shalini Roy, Research Fellow, IFPRI; Susana Medina Salas, Senior Research & Evaluation Consultant, IPPF/WHR; Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO; and Vandana Sharma, Research Associate, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative.


Register online.

Book: The Radical Right Biopsychosocial Roots and International Variations

Authors: Wahl, Klaus


This book (2020) analyses the rise in xenophobia, racism, and radical right political parties, movements, and violent groups over recent years.

The author provides a summary of the current state of international and interdisciplinary research on the multilevel explanations of right-wing radical thought, comparing similarities and differences across Europe and the United States. By integrating findings from psychology, history, social and life sciences, he proposes a biopsychosociological model of the conditions, causes, catalysts, and triggers of phenomena of the radical right across the world. Following a ‘demand’ and ‘supply’ analysis, Wahl explores the interaction of evolutionary emotional mechanisms and socialization processes with various environmental conditions, and consequent manifestations of radical right groups, to identify strategies to slow down the rise and effects of the radical right.

Webinar: Research Briefing: "Laying the Groundwork: How States Can Improve Access to Continued Education for People in the Criminal Justice System"


Tuesday, February 25th at 3:00 p.m. ET


Register Now

Continued education is proven to have a notable impact on reducing recidivism. Yet, a new report by the CSG Justice Center finds that the vast majority of states have major barriers to postsecondary education opportunities for people during incarceration and upon release.

Laying the Groundwork: How States Can Improve Access to Continued Education for People in the Criminal Justice System provides a state-by-state analysis of postsecondary education policy and practices. The report identifies four fundamental “building blocks” that states should have in place to ensure that high-quality postsecondary education is readily accessible to currently and formerly incarcerated people.
The webinar will take place on Feb. 25 at 3:00 p.m. EST and will feature an expert group of panelists who will share information on the following:

  • Why the study was conducted and current state of the field and research on postsecondary education for people in the criminal justice system
  • National and state-specific findings on the current landscape of state policy, funding, and practice that supports or inhibits access to postsecondary education for people who are in the criminal justice system
  • State best practices to improve educational access, quality, and support for people in corrections facilities and when they return to the community


Le’Ann Duran, Deputy Division Director, Economic Mobility, The CSG Justice Center


Leah Bacon, Policy Analyst, The CSG Justice Center
Haley Glover, Strategy Director, Lumina Foundation
Gina Lee, Legal Fellow, The CSG Justice Center
Ruth Stadheim, Director of Career & Technical Education, Minnesota Department of Corrections



Register Now




The Council of State Governments Justice Center recently released Laying the Groundwork, a data-centric report that reveals major shortcomings in access to continued education for currently and formerly incarcerated people in all 50 states.



IHRN - Training 2020 - HRBA: Justice & Security Sector Reform

Training Programme: HRBA: Justice & Security Sector Reform

Dates: Monday 22nd June to 26th June 2020

Venue: National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland 


Now in its 16th year, this annual IHRN training programme aims at enhancing the skills of justice/security sector personnel, consultants, programme managers etc., in applying Human Rights Based Approaches to Sector Reform.  The programme is designed for people working in the justice & security sectors (with state or non-state institutions) or undertaking Rule of law/Governance assignments (e.g. UN, EU, CoE and bi-lateral donors) as well as those wishing to adapt their expertise for international consultancy work.

Please note that applications are processed on an on-going basis and participant numbers are capped to ensure interactive learning, so early application is advised.


Knowledge and skills enhanced include:

• The legal principles, policies & practice underpinning HRBA to justice/security sector reform

• The inter-linkages between sector roles (state/human security, law enforcement, judiciary, corrections/rehabilitation, etc.)

• The relationship between the justice and security sectors, 'rule of law', 'good governance'

• Human Rights Based needs assessment, programme design, implementation, monitoring & evaluation

• Programming tools & checklists (including benchmarks & indicators of human rights change)

• Case studies from selected jurisdictions and international field missions (including conflict/post-conflict/transitional contexts)

• Teamwork, advocacy, strategic partnerships and international work opportunities in the sectors


Further information, application details, testimonials etc can be found at the following link: HRBA: Justice & Security Sector Reform



IHRN Scholarship

Details of the criteria and application process for an IHRN Scholarship for this programme in 2020 are available here. The deadline for completed scholarship applications for this programme is 27th March 2020.


New AIC Publication: Australian outlaw motorcycle gang involvement in violent and organised crime

The Australian Institute of Criminology’s Serious and Organised Crime Research Laboratory has released a new paper exploring the involvement of Australian outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) in violent and organised crime.

  • The study analysed the criminal histories of 5,669 known OMCG members from 39 gangs. The data were obtained by matching the ACIC’s National Gangs List with offence data from the National Police Reference System.
  • Violent and profit-motivated offending was common among OMCG members. One in four had been apprehended for a recent offence involving violence and intimidation, and one in eight for organised crime-type offences.
  • Offending and associated harm, measured using a crime harm index, was concentrated among a relatively small group of members. Five percent of members accounted for around 70 percent of crime-related harm.
  • Half of all chapters and three-quarters of gangs had members recently involved in organised crime-type offending.
  • In 11 gangs, both office bearers and other members were involved in organised crime, indicative of their status as criminal organisations.
  • Those gangs with the highest prevalence of organised crime-type offences were among those with the highest prevalence of violence and intimidation offences.

This study provides, for the first time, a national picture of recorded offending by Australian OMCGs. While highlighting high rates of criminal activity, including violent and organised crime, it also demonstrates the value of law enforcement and policy measures targeted at high-risk individuals, chapters and gangs.

The paper is available for free download on the AIC website: