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Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety

2nd Edition

Edited by Nick Tilley, Aiden Sidebottom

© 2017 – Routledge

This second edition of the Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety provides a completely revised and updated collection of essays focusing on the theory and practice of crime prevention and the creation of safer communities. This book is divided into five comprehensive parts:

• Part I, brand new to this edition, is concerned with theoretical perspectives on crime prevention and community safety.

• Part II considers general approaches to preventing crime, including a new chapter on the theory and practice of deterrence.

• Part III focuses on specific crime prevention strategies, including a new chapter on regulation for crime prevention.

• Part IV focuses on the prevention of specific categories of crime and the fear they generate, including new chapters on organised crime and cybercrime.

• Part V considers the preventative process: the methods through which presenting problems can be analysed, responses formulated and implemented, and their effectiveness evaluated. Bringing together leading academics and practitioners from the UK, US, Australia and the Netherlands, this volume will be an invaluable reference for researchers and practitioners whose work relates to crime prevention and community safety, as well as for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in crime prevention.

"The first edition of this Handbook was a key book for this field in 2005. This new edition is much more than just an updating. It brings a welcome increased focus on the key theories. It adds new research in the field together with key new topics such as cybercrime. The author list continues to be a list of all the key thinkers and researchers in the field of crime prevention and community safety." Peter Neyroud CBE QPM, Lecturer in Evidence-based Policing, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK

CEP and EuroPris workshop on Mental Health in Prison and Probation

The Confederation of European Probation (CEP) and Europris will organise a 1,5 day workshop on the 6th and 7th of December the theme of the workshop is Mental Health issues in Prison and Probation. The workshop is kindly hosted by the Irish Probation Service in Dublin.

Save the date! The International RESTORATIVE JUSTICE WEEK (#RJWeek) .

Save the date! The International RESTORATIVE JUSTICE WEEK (#RJWeek) will take place all over Europe and beyond in the week between 19-26 November 2017.

Police Violence Depends on Community-level Racial Bias

The racial biases of whites in a community predicts police use of lethal force against black Americans

Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Philando Castiles - these are just some of the names in the increasing number of news reports about black Americans being shot by police in the US in the last few years. Most of these cases involved men who were unarmed and had no criminal record or intent. This has resulted in widespread public outcry. Were these men the victims of the racism of white Americans? A new study shows a relationship between lethal police force and racial bias. Social cognition researcher Dr. Jimmy Calanchini, who is currently a visiting researcher at the University of Freiburg, and his colleagues have discovered the following: The racial biases of whites against blacks in a given region predicts how likely it is that black Americans are killed by police in that region. The research team used a big-data approach to create the first statistical model for using racial bias to predict lethal police force. They recently published the results of their research in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Social Psychological and Personality Science. Calanchini and his fellow cognitive scientists studied the so-called "implicit bias" of more than two million Americans all over the United States. Implicit bias refers to the more or less subconscious views people have about people they meet. Is a person friendly or stand-offish, good or bad, harmless or dangerous? In their work, the group chose a new approach: Instead of studying the implicit biases of individual police officers against different racial groups, they focused on the context in which police work normally takes place. The scientists combined data from police databases with demographic factors from different areas, along with the implicit and explicit biases of people living in those areas. “We expected certain economic and demographic factors to play a role – like standard of living, level of education, and crime levels in a given region,” said Calanchini. “But in fact it was the implicit biases of the residents and how strongly they associate certain social groups with threat that predicts how likely police will use violence.” Black Americans are especially affected by this. Calanchini added, “In areas where bias against them is strong, there is a greater likelihood that they will be killed by police.” The researchers stressed, however, that this is not specifically a problem of the police. Calanchini said, “Our research showed that regional context plays a role in how police make speedy life-or-death decisions.” However, Calanchini cautioned against drawing strong conclusions about racism causing police behavior. “One interpretation of our results might be that the racial biases of the community cause police to use more lethal force against black Americans. However, another interpretation might be that, in regions where Black Americans are killed by police for any variety of reasons, these cases may get covered in local news and, consequently, people in the community become more biased against black Americans. Based on these data, we cannot rule out either explanation at this time.” Jimmy Calanchini earned his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California, Davis, in the US. He has been a visiting researcher in Social Psychology and Methodology at the Department of Psychology of the University of Freiburg since August 2016. He is a recipient of a two-year post-doc fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Calanchini’s co-authors on this project are Eric Hehman, Ph.D, of Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada, and Jessica K. Flake of York University in Toronto, Canada. Original Publication: Eric Hehman, Jessica Flake, Jimmy Calanchini: Disproportionate use of lethal force in policing is associated with regional racial biases of residents. In: Social Psychological and Personality Science. Contact: Dr. Jimmy Calanchini Department of Psychology University of Freiburg E-Mail: jimmy.calanchini@psychologie.uni-freiburg.de

 

Register for Webinar: Effectively Implementing Family Engagement and Involvement Practices for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

Register for Webinar:

Effectively Implementing Family Engagement and Involvement Practices for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

Hosted by the National Reentry Resource Center, with funding support from the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Assistance

Date: Thursday, Aug. 24

Time: 2–3:30 p.m.

ET Research shows that youth who have supportive caregivers have better outcomes than youth with less supportive caregivers. This is true across the juvenile justice, child welfare, behavioral health, and education systems. Youth whose caregivers do not provide consistent structure and support are at far greater risk of engaging in continued delinquent behavior and suffering poor outcomes into adulthood. But agencies and programs that serve youth in the juvenile justice system often struggle to implement family engagement and involvement policies and practices effectively.

This webinar will highlight strategies, tools, examples, and best-practice models from across the country that juvenile justice agency managers, staff, and other practitioners may consider adopting to effectively implement family engagement practices and promote positive outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system.

University Of Cambridge Research Bulletin: Trading on human tides – the 'free market' of people smuggling

Human smuggling has the potential to be far more lucrative than most other occupations available to people on the smuggling routes”. Cambridge criminologists are using emerging sources of information – from court records to Facebook groups – to analyse the networks behind one of the fastest-growing black markets on the planet: the smuggling of people into Europe.

European CTC Implementation Guide

The CTC-EU-Network aims to make the established CTC-method transferable to other European countries. This European Implementation Guide will facilitate the use of the CTC-method in other European countries. Evaluations of CTC are showing positive impacts for children living in the CTC-area, compared with children who did not live in the area. The EU-funded CTC-EU project (2013-2015) contributes to enhanced implementations of community-based programmes based on a risk and protective factor model, and initiatives that focus on preventing the development of problem behaviour by early intervention with children and youth. The project results lead to a facilitated use of the "Communities That Care" approach by stakeholders in community-based prevention efforts (municipalities, youth-care agencies, schools and preschools, parents etc.). Thus, beneficiaries of the project will be after all families and youth in communities who use the CTC framework to increase the implementation of evidence-based prevention measures, taylored to their local specific needs and resources. Our project aims to facilitate the implementation of the CTC-system in every European country. We expect that adapting CTC from the U.S. is only in part adapting it to specific national conditions, but at the same time (even more) adapting it to European conditions. Based on the expected results of our project this work could be economized in future. Implementing CTC measures at the European level will reduce implementation costs for communities and states. CTC itself has been found a cost-beneficial intervention in the U.S. (5,3 $ return on every 1 $ spend, Kuklinski et al. 2011).